While working with data, you will likely need to order it in a convenient way. For example, you may have to put numbers in ascending order, group lines in alphabetical order, and organize anything you work with by date, by price, or by other custom characteristics.

In Java, it’s possible to implement various sorting algorithms for any type of data. What if you have to work with custom types, sort elements of a collection, and try to compare objects that are not directly comparable? That’s where the Comparable interface comes in handy. In this topic, we will learn all about this interface and its compareTo() method.

Preparing to compare

Let’s look at an example. We created a list of Integer‘s, added some elements and then sorted them.

public static void main(String[] args) {
    List<Integer> list = new ArrayList<>();


As expected, we get:

[13, 47, 55]

Now, let’s create a simple class Car where we want to sort cars by their numbers.

public class Car {
    private int number;
    private String model;
    private String color;
    private int weight;

    // constructor

    // getters, setters

Now we try to write some code for the main method, create our collection and sort it using the Collections.sort() method.

public static void main(String[] args) {
    List<Car> cars = new ArrayList<>();
    Car car1 = new Car(876, "BMW", "white", 1400);
    Car car2 = new Car(345, "Mercedes", "black", 2000);
    Car car3 = new Car(470, "Volvo", "blue", 1800);


As a result, we get a compilation error:

The method sort(List) in the type Collections 
  is not applicable for the arguments (ArrayList)

The reason for this is that standard classes like IntegerString and so on implement a special interface, so we can compare them without any problems. As for our custom class Car, it doesn’t work like that. Let’s see how we can fix this.

Comparable interface

Comparable provides the compareTo() method which allows comparing an object with other objects of the same type. It’s also important to comply with the conditions: all objects can be compared to other objects of the same type in the most widely used way, which means compareTo() should be consistent with the equals method. A sequence of data has the natural ordering, if for each 2 elements a and b, where a is located to the left of b, the condition is true: a.compareTo(b) <= 0

It’s easy to understand how to compare an Integer or String because they already implement the Comparable interface, but how do we compare objects of our custom type? We can do it in different ways depending on the task. We can compare them by any single field or several fields.

To be able to sort, we must rewrite our Car class using the Comparable interface. For example, we can compare our Car objects by their number. Here’s how you can implement it:

public class Car implements Comparable<Car> {

    private int number;
    private String model;
    private String color;
    private int weight;

    // constructor

    // getters, setters

    public int compareTo(Car otherCar) {
        return Integer.valueOf(getNumber()).compareTo(otherCar.getNumber());


Now if we run our new code we get the correct result.

Implementing the compareTo method

Let’s talk about the compareTo() method. It compares the current object with the object sent as a parameter. To implement it correctly we need to make sure that the method returns:

  • A positive integer (for example, 1), if the current object is greater;
  • A negative integer (for example, -1), if the current object is less;
  • Zero, if they are equal.

Below you can see an example of how the compareTo() method is implemented in the Integer class.

public int compareTo(Integer anotherInteger) {
    return compare(this.value, anotherInteger.value);

public static int compare (int x, int y) {
    return (x < y) ? -1 : ((x == y) ? 0 : 1);

There are some other rules for implementing the compareTo() method. To demonstrate them, imagine we have a class called Coin:

class Coin implements Comparable<Coin> {
    private final int nominalValue;    // nominal value
    private final int mintYear;        // the year the coin was minted

    Coin(int nominalValue, int mintYear) {
        this.nominalValue = nominalValue;
        this.mintYear = mintYear;

    public int compareTo(Coin other) {
        // This method we have to implement

    // We consider two coins equal if they have the same nominal value
    public boolean equals(Object that) {
        if (this == that) return true;
        if (that == null || getClass() != that.getClass()) return false;
        Coin coin = (Coin) that;
        return nominalValue == coin.nominalValue;

    // getters, setters, hashCode and toString

Let’s create some objects of Coin.

public static void main(String[] args) {

    Coin big = new Coin(25, 2006);
    Coin medium1 = new Coin(10, 2016);
    Coin medium2 = new Coin(10, 2001);
    Coin small = new Coin(2, 2000);

One of the rules is to keep the compareTo() implementation consistent with the implementation of the equals() method. For example:

  • medium1.compareTo(medium2) == 0 should have the same boolean value as medium2.equals(medium1)

If we compare our coins and big is bigger than medium1 and medium1 is bigger than small, then big is bigger than small:

  • (big.compareTo(medium1) > 0 && medium1.compareTo(small) > 0) implies big.compareTo(small) > 0

big is bigger than small, hence small is smaller than big:

  • big.compareTo(small) > 0 and small.compareTo(big) < 0

if medium1 is equal to medium2, they both must be bigger or smaller than small and big respectively:

  • medium1.compareTo(medium2) == 0 implies that big.compareTo(medium1) > 0 and big.compareTo(medium2) > 0 or small.compareTo(medium1) < 0 and small.compareTo(medium2) < 0

This will ensure that we can safely use such objects in sorted sets and sorted maps.

In this case, we can comply with all these requirements if we compare our coins by their nominal value:

class Coin implements Comparable<Coin> {

    // fields, constructor, equals, hashCode, getters and setters

    public int compareTo(Coin other) {
        if (nominalValue == other.nominalValue) {
            return 0;
        } else if (nominalValue < other.nominalValue) {
            return -1;
        } else {
            return 1;

    public String toString() {
        return "Coin{nominal=" + nominalValue + ", year=" + mintYear + "}";

Now we can add the coins to a list and sort them:

List<Coin> coins = new ArrayList<>();



In the output, we can see that the coins have been successfully sorted:

Coin{nominal=2, year=2000}
Coin{nominal=10, year=2016}
Coin{nominal=10, year=2001}
Coin{nominal=25, year=2006}


In this topic, we explored how to use the Comparable interface in our custom classes to define natural ordering algorithms. We also learned how to properly implement the compareTo method.

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