What is NPE

Java provides a special type of value called null to indicate that no actual value is assigned to a reference variable. This value may cause one of the most frequent exceptions called NullPointerException (often referred to as NPE for short). It occurs when a program attempts to use a variable with the null value. To avoid an NPE, the programmer must ensure that the objects are initialized before their use.

Here is one interesting fact about the concept of a null reference and errors associated with it. Not only is it not unique for Java, but in 2009, Tony Hoare, a British Computer Scientist who invented the concept of null reference, described it as a “billion-dollar mistake”:

I call it my billion-dollar mistake. It was the invention of the null reference in 1965. At that time, I was designing the first comprehensive type system for references in an object-oriented language (ALGOL W). My goal was to ensure that all use of references should be absolutely safe, with checking performed automatically by the compiler. But I couldn’t resist the temptation to put in a null reference, simply because it was so easy to implement. This has led to innumerable errors, vulnerabilities, and system crashes, which have probably caused a billion dollars of pain and damage in the last forty years.

Let’s look at some situations where an NPE might occur and find out how to avoid it.

NPE when invoking a method

Since String is a regular reference type, its variables can be null. If we invoke a method or apply an operation to such a variable, the code throws an NPE.

In the following code, an uninitialized variable of String is created and then the method length() is invoked. The code throws an NPE because the object str is actually null.

String someString = null; // a reference type can be null

int size = someString.length(); // NullPointerException (NPE)

The same exception will occur if we use uninitialized variables of any other reference type, not only String.

To avoid the exception we should explicitly check whether a string is null or not and depending on the result perform different code. It’s similar to the default value.

int size = someString != null ? someString.length() : 0; // if the string is null, the size is 0

In the code above, when the given string is null, the size is set as 0. This way we won’t get any exceptions.

Comparing strings

A very common situation occurs when we try to compare a String variable and a string literal.

String str = null;

if (str.equals("abc")) { // it throws an NPE
    System.out.println("The same");

To avoid an NPE here we can use Yoda notation and call the equals method on the literal rather than the object:

String str = null;

if ("abc".equals(str)) { // no NPE here
    System.out.println("The same");

But what if we have two variables of the type String? Any of them may happen to be null. In this case, we can use the special auxiliary class java.util.Objects.

String s1 = null;
String s2 = null;
if (Objects.equals(s1, s2)) { // no NPE here
    System.out.println("Strings are the same");

This approach is recommended in modern Java programming since it is easy for reading and does not throw an NPE.

Rules for avoiding NPE

We’ve considered a few cases in which an NPE may occur. Actually, there are more of such situations, and we will consider them in the next topics.

Here are several general rules on how to avoid an NPE in your programs:

  • for reference types, use a conditional statement to check whether the given variable is null before using it;
  • try to avoid assigning null to variables whenever possible;
  • use NPE-safe features from the standard library.

These simple rules will help to reduce the number of places in your code that could throw this exception.


You may face an NPE if you are trying to invoke a method or apply an operation to a variable with the null value. For example, if you use uninitialized variables of String type or other reference types.

Besides, this exception may occur when we compare a String variable and a string literal. In this case, we should call the equals method on the literal. There is also a special auxiliary class java.util.Objects that we use to compare two variables of the String type.

Follow simple rules: don’t assign null to a variable or make sure that the given one is not null, use NPE-safe features.

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