A billion-dollar mistake

Like many programming languages, Java uses null to represent the absence of a value. Sometimes this approach leads to exceptions like NPE while non-null checks make code less readable. The British computer scientist Tony Hoare—the inventor of the null concept—even describes introducing null as a “billion-dollar mistake” since it has led to innumerable errors, vulnerabilities, and system crashes. To avoid the issues associated with null, Java provides the Optional class that is a safer alternative for standard null references.

Optional values

The Optional<T> class represents the presence or absence of a value of the specified type T. An object of this class can be either empty or non-empty.

Let’s look at an example. In the following code, we create two Optional objects called absent and present. The first object represents an empty value (such as null), and the second one keeps a real string value.

Optional<String> absent = Optional.empty();
Optional<String> present = Optional.of("Hello");

The isPresent method checks whether an object is empty or not:

System.out.println(absent.isPresent()); // false
System.out.println(present.isPresent()); // true

Starting with Java 11, we can also invoke the opposite isEmpty method.

If you pass the null object to the of method, it will cause NPE.

Optionals and nullable objects

In a situation when you don’t know whether a variable is null or not, you should pass it to the ofNullable method instead of the of method. It creates an empty Optional if the passed value is null.

The word nullable means that a variable is potentially null.

In the following example, the getRandomMessage method may return null or some string message. Depending on what is returned, the result will be different.

String message = getRandomMessage(); // it may be null

Optional<String> optMessage = Optional.ofNullable(message);

System.out.println(optMessage.isPresent()); // true or false

If the message is not null (e.g. "Hello") the code will print true. Otherwise, it will print false because the Optional object is empty.

In a sense, Optional is like a box that contains either some value or nothing. It wraps a value or null keeping the possibility to check it by using special methods.

As you can see, the idea is pretty simple. Let’s consider what we can do with Optionals.

It is important that assigning the null value to a variable of the Optional type is possible, but it is considered as a bad programming practice.

Getting the value from an Optional

The most obvious thing to do with an Optional is to get its value. For now, we’re going to discuss three methods with such purpose:

  • get returns the value if it’s present, otherwise throws an exception;
  • orElse returns the value if it’s present, otherwise returns other;
  • orElseGet returns the value if it’s present, otherwise invokes other and returns its result.

Let’s see how they work. First, we use the get method to obtain the present value:

Optional<String> optName = Optional.of("John");
String name = optName.get(); // "John"

This code works well and returns the name "John" from the Optional. But if an Optional object is empty, the program throws NoSuchElementException exception.

Optional<String> optName = Optional.ofNullable(null);
String name = optName.get(); // throws NoSuchElementException

This is not exactly what we would expect from the class designed to reduce the number of exceptions.

Since Java 10, the preferred alternative to the get method is the orElseThrow method whose behavior is the same, but the name describes it better.

Other methods allow us to handle the empty Optional case. Let’s consider them.

The orElse method is used to extract the value wrapped inside an Optional object or return some default value when the Optional is empty. The default value is passed to the method as its argument:

String nullableName = null;
String name = Optional.ofNullable(nullableName).orElse("unknown");
System.out.println(name); // unknown

Unlike the previous example, this one doesn’t throw an exception but returns a default value instead.

orElseGet method is quite similar, but it takes a supplier function to produce a result instead of taking some value to return:

String name = Optional

In this example, we use the getDefaultResult method for producing a default result.

Conditional actions

There are also convenient methods that take functions as arguments and perform some actions on values wrapped inside Optional:

  • ifPresent performs the given action with the value, otherwise does nothing;
  • ifPresentOrElse performs the given action with the value, otherwise performs the given empty-based action.

The ifPresent method allows us to run some code on the value if the Optional is not empty. The method takes a consumer function that can process the value.

The following example prints the length of a company’s name by using the ifPresent.

Optional<String> companyName = Optional.of("Google");
companyName.ifPresent((name) -> System.out.println(name.length())); // 6

However, the following code does not print anything because the Optional object is empty.

Optional<String> noName = Optional.empty();
noName.ifPresent((name) -> System.out.println(name.length()));

It does not throw an exception due to performing the internal null check.

The “classic” equivalent of these two code snippets looks like the following:

String companyName = ...;
if (companyName != null) {

This code is more error-prone because it is possible to forget to perform the null check explicitly and then get the NPE.

The method ifPresentOrElse is a safer alternative to the whole if-else statement. It executes one of two functions depending on whether the value is present in the Optional.

Optional<String> optName = Optional.ofNullable(/* some value goes here */);

        (name) -> System.out.println(name.length()), 
        () -> System.out.println(0)

If optName contains some value (like "Google"), the lambda expression is called and it prints the length of the name. If optName is empty, the second function prints 0 as the default value. Sometimes, developers call the second lambda expression fallback which is an alternative plan if something went wrong (no value).


Objects of the Optional class represent the presence or absence of a value in a safer way than null does.

This class:

  • allows programmers to avoid null references that may lead to NPE;
  • reduces the boilerplate code for checking null (such as if (something == null));
  • provides a rich set of functional methods.

Now, you can choose the most appropriate way to represent a possibly missing value besides using null. In this topic, we haven’t considered some advanced functional methods like mapfilter, and flatMap, but they will be considered further.

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